These are some of the most urgent questions that must be answered to fill the knowledge gap between particle and cosmology physics. In the electroweak theory, mass is obtained by the Higgs mechanism, i.e. by a discrete displacement of the scalar field. This does not correspond to the gradual decrease in temperature that we believe took place in the early universe. It therefore requires a description of the chemically nonequilibrium relaxation dynamics following after big bang. In two recently published papers [1, 2], we derived such a dynamics which yielded valence quarks without leaving any residual antiquarks behind, despite that we started out with equal amounts of fermions and antifermions at the big bang. As will be explained in a coming paper, this contradictive problem is essentially the same as that occurring in the Hilbert’s Hotel paradox.

The crucial key was to solve the underlying statistical mechanical problem, i.e. to formulate the relaxation Dynamics; first to describe 1) the rate of increase in the numbers of particles, i.e. of valence quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, and 2) the strong spatial correlations between these particles when temperature decreases and the system condenses, and then 3) to combine these two formulas. This yielded a superconductor-like interaction potential in which the scalar field works as an order parameter that counts the increasing number of particles in the system ^{1}.

This type of chemically reactive dynamics, which shows how the matter-antimatter asymmetry arose, is also thought to describe the relaxation of hadronic matter after high-energy proton-proton collisions, and might also work similarly in black holes towards the central regions where the mass-energy increases, however, the reaction then goes backwards [1, 2]. Clearly this dynamical system goes beyond the grand canonical ensemble (which only admits fluctuations in the number of particles) and lattice QCD and hence beyond the standard model. The model showed that the matter-antimatter (baryon-antibaryon) asymmetry and the dark matter problems are essentially the same, and it also gave a correct order estimate of the dark matter content in the universe.

^{1}The same type of chemical nonequilibrium dynamics is required to explain how living cells take decisions such as to enter the active cell cycle, to replicate DNA and to divide (see our publications in biological physics). It should hence also be a basic ingredient in the definition of an anthropic principle (see S. Weinberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 (1989) 1-23).

**Recent publications in fundamental physics**

- L. Matsson, Higg-like mechanism by confinement of quarks in a chemical non-equilibrium model. World Journal of Mechanics
**6**(2016) 441. Abstract, download. - L. Matsson, On dark matter identification. World Journal of Mechanics
**7**(2017) 133. Abstract, download.

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**Homepage at Gothenburg University**

http://www.biomedicine.gu.se/leifmatsson